Official Languages: Arabic
Established: 1836 AD/CE
Disestablished: 1921 AD/CE
The Emirate of Jabal Shammar was established in 1836 and spent most of its existence in a feud with the House of Saud over control of Nejd. The Rashīdis, rulers of Jabal Shammar, had succeeded in ousting the Saudis from Riyadh in 1891 following the Battle of Mulayda. This resulted in the abolition of the Second Saudi State, the Emirate of Nejd, and incorporation of its territory into Jabal Shammar. As the Saudis were out of the picture, exiled in Kuwait, the House of Rashīd sought friendly ties with the Ottoman Empire to its north. This alliance became less and less profitable during the course of the 19th century as the Ottomans lost influence and legitimacy.
In 1902, Abdulaziz Ibn Saud succeeded in recapturing Riyadh for the House of Saud, and began a campaign to reconquer the region - a campaign which turned out to be highly successful for the Saudis. After several clashes, the Rashīdis and Saudis engaged into a full scale war over the region of Qassim, which resulted in a painful defeat for the Rashīdis and the death of the Rashīdi emir Abdul Aziz ibn Mitaab al-Rashīd.
Following the death of the Emir, Jabal Shammar gradually went into decline, being further pressed with the demise of its patron in World War I. Ibn Saud, allied with the British Empire as a counterweight to the Ottomans' support for Jabal Shammar, emerged far stronger from the First World War. The Emirate of Jabal Shammar was finally terminated with the Saudi campaign of late 1921. The Emirate surrendered to the Saudis on November 2, 1921, and was subsequently incorporated into the Sultanate of Nejd.