iRacing Corner Types
Racetracks have straights but are also consist of many different types of corners. While it mostly consists of road and dirt road corner types, there are also oval and dirt oval corner types too.
Make sure to read these corner terms:
Turn-In: The initial spot where the driver turns the steering wheel to begin negotiating the corner, no matter what corner type it is.
Apex: The heart of the racing line and the inside edge of any corner type.
Track-Out: The spot where the driver gradually turns the steering wheel to begin exiting that particular corner.
There is also Oversteer and Understeer which have their own definitions below.
Oversteer: When the car steers by more than the amount commanded by the driver. The best fix for oversteer is by staying off the throttle and by steering in the same direction as the slide and by being prepared for the second reaction slide by quickly steering back in the original direction.
Note: If you cannot catch the slide in time and still spinning, lock up the brakes instantly so that the other drivers can better predict which way you are gonna go. Also if you tie a string from the bottom of your big toe to the bottom of the steering wheel so that it is tight enough, then the car will be balanced at all times since the string will not allow a misapplication to occur.
Understeer: When the car steers less than the amount commanded by the driver. The best fix for understeer is a slight lift of the throttle, do not add more steering.
Corners are not just categorized by their types but by also what particular situations that those corners can fall into. There are 3 different situations for a corner to be in which are Danger, Setup and Speed Corners.
Danger Corner: A danger corner is a corner situation where the turn is very tight and should be taken with extra care and attention. These corners are usually found at the end of long straightaways and can be quite tricky or troublesome to a driver that isn't prepared for one.
Setup Corner: A setup corner is a corner situation where the turn is a blend of speed and tightness. These corners are used to get prepared for either a danger corner or a speed corner and are commonly found between speed or danger corners.
Speed Corner: A speed corner is a corner situation where the turn is nothing but full of speed and very little tightness. These corners are found sometimes in-between setup corners but can be found just before or after a danger corner.
Corners are also categorized by the configuration that they can fall into and there are primarily 3 different configurations of corners which are Configuration 1, Configuration 2, and Configuration 3 corners. These do not refer to the actual corner shape but by how they lead onto a straight or into another corner.
Configuration 1: A corner configuration that leads onto a long straightaway. They are critical since the driver needs to achieve the highest possible exit speed in order to carry the most amount of speed down that particular straightaway.
Configuration 2: A corner configuration that is found at the end of long straightaways. It doesn't matter what radius the corner is but what does matter is to consider the amount of time the accelerator is fully depressed on the straightaway. Exit speed on Configuration 2 corners is not as vital as is focusing on the optimization of the brakes and carrying such speed into the corner.
Configuration 3: A corner configuration that leads into another corner. Since the turns are connected to one another, the driver is unable to optimize the radius of both corners so the sacrifice is made on the optimum line through the first corner in order to be on the best possible radius for the second corner.
Different Racing Lines
Below are three different racing lines in blue, white, and red. Also, these racing lines will also be further explained to truly understand which one is the most optimal, fastest, and most efficient way around a particular corner. Note that this corner below at WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca is used only as an example.
Blue Line: This line shows that the vehicle is being driven on the outside of the corner which does give the driver a larger radius and more speed. However, this racing line is not the optimum method for getting around the corner. It is also the longest route but does maximize the available real estate that has to be covered.
White Line: When the turn-in, apex, and track-out model is implemented, the highest available speed with the most optimum method is shown. The real estate covered is right in the middle and is the in-between route of the corner. Notice how the white line and the red line being shown below conflict at the apex of the corner and how both the white line and blue line conflict at both the track-out portion and the turn-in portion of the corner.
Red Line: A very common misconception is that the fastest route through a given corner is the shortest route or "Hugging" the corner. This racing line does minimalize the real estate that has to be covered. However, it forces any racecar to travel on the smallest radius possible which carries the slowest speed through the corner.
|Picture of WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca Turn 4 with Multiple Racing Lines shown|