Established: 1701 AD/CE
Disestablished: 1783 AD/CE
The Kalhora dynasty (Sindhi: ڪلهوڙا راڄ) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Sindhi origin based in the region of Sindh of what is now Pakistan. The dynasty ruled Sindh and parts of the Punjab region between 1701 and 1783 from their capital of Khudabad, before shifting to Hyderabad from 1768 onwards. They were assigned to hold authority by the Mughal Grand Vizier Mirza Ghazi Beg and later formed their own independent dynasty, and they were known as the "Kalhora Nawabs" by the Mughal Emperors.
The Kalhora dynasty succumbed to the Qizilbash during the invasion of Nadir Shah. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro reorganised and consolidated his power, but his son lost control of Sindh and was overthrown by Talpurs Amirs. Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro was the last Kalhora ruler.
Kalhora rule of Sindh began in 1701 when Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro was invested with title of Khuda Yar Khan and was made governor of Upper Sindh sarkar by royal decree of the Mughals. Later, he was made governor of Siwi through imperial decree. He founded a new city Khudabad after he obtained from Aurangzeb a grant of the track between the Indus and the Nara and made it the capital of his kingdom. Thenceforth, Mian Yar Muhammad became one of the imperial agents or governors. Later he extended his rule to Sehwan and Bukkur and became sole ruler of Northern and central Sindh except Thatto which was still under the administrative control of Mughal Empire.
The Kalhora dynasty produced four powerful rulers namely, Mian Nasir Muhammad, Mian Yar Muhammad, Mian Noor Muhammad and Mian Ghulam Shah.
As has been already stated the Kalhora army consisted of a large number of Baloch tribes. The Balochis had by this time become the strongest military force in the land. The early Kalhora had encouraged the Balochis to settle in Sind, in order that the Kalhoro might take advantage of this military superiority in the battlefield. The whole army of Kalhoras consisted of Balochis. After the successful revolt of the army the Talpur - Mirs became rulers of Sindh, the Kalhoras were completely wiped out.