Official Languages: Brahwi
Established: 1512 AD/CE
Disestablished: 1955 AD/CE
The Khanate of Kalat (Balochi: خانات ءِ قلات) was a Baloch Khanate, that existed from 1666 to 1955 in the centre of the modern-day province of Balochistan, Pakistan. Prior to that they were subjects of Mughal emperor Akbar. Ahmedzai Khan ruled the state independently until 1839, when it became a self-governing state in a subsidiary alliance with British India. After the signature of the Treaty of Mastung by the Khan of Kalat and the Baloch Sardars in 1876, Kalat became part of the Baluchistan Agency. It was briefly independent from 12 August 1947 until 27 March 1948, when the Khan acceded his state to the new Dominion of Pakistan. It remained a princely state of Pakistan until 1955, when it was incorporated into the country.
The Khanate of Kalat occupied the central part of the territory of modern-day Balochistan province in Pakistan. To the north was Baluchistan (Chief Commissioner's Province).
The principal mountains are the Central Baloch, Kirthar, Pab, Siahan, Central Makran and Makran Coast Ranges, which descend in elevation from about 10,000 to 1,200 feet (370 m). The drainage of the country is almost all carried off to the south by the Nari, Mula, Hab, Porali, Hingol and Dasht rivers. The only large river draining northwards is the Rakhshan. The coast line includes Gawadar, Pasni, Sonmiani and Geewani, modern-day Pakistani Balochistan.
In the wake of Arab conquest toward the beginning of 8th century A.D. Kurdghalnamak - a recent discovered book written by Akhund Muhammad Saleh in the12th century A.D in Kalat -mentions that Baloch tribes came and settled in this area in the 853 B.C. In the 12th and 13th centuries Tarikh-i-Masumi records the presence of Balochis during the reign of Muhammad Tughlaq(1326- 27). According to Ta'rikh-i Yahyae al-muluk, at the end of the 16th century the Kelat region (former Turan) was under the control of the Safavids, but at the beginning of the 17th century the Baluchi tribe of Lashari stood up against the Sistan Khan and the Kermanian Beglar-Begi, and took control of Turan and Makran, until the Kelat Khanate appeared. The Khanate of Kalat was founded in 1666 by Mir Ahmad Khan. The Khanate reached at its peak during the period of Khan of Kalat Mir Noori Naseer Khan Brahvi, in 1758, who unified Kalat region under his flag. The territories controlled by the state fluctuated over the centuries but eventually were established by treaties with the British Agent Robert Sandeman in the late 19th century. Parts of the state to the north and northeast were leased or ceded to form the province of British Baluchistan which later gained the status of a Chief Commissioners province.
From 12 August 1947 to 27 March 1948, the region was de facto independent before acceding to Pakistan on 27 March 1948. The Baluchistan States Union was formed on 3 October 1952 with three neighbouring states. The Khanate of Kalat ceased to exist on 14 October 1955 when the province of West Pakistan was formed.
The khanate of Kelat had a flag green over red. In the center occupying the red part and a little part of the green, a large white crescent pointed upwards and a white star (the star exactly in the center of the two stripes). Within the star and crescent an Islamic inscription. On the star is the Takbir ("God is the greatest") and on the crescent moon is the Shahada ("There is no god but God and Muhammad is His messenger"). All of this is placed on the horizontal bicolor of green over red. These are colors to which Muslim Baluch assign great significance.
The rulers of Kalat held the title of Wali originally but in 1739 also took the title (Begler Begi) Khan usually shortened to Khan. The last Khan of Kalat (Balochi: خان قلات) had the privilege of being the President of the Council of Rulers for the Baluchistan States Union. They also had the title of beylerbey.